Schindler Elevator’s offerings range from passenger elevators suitable for small blocks of apartments to sophisticated transport solutions for skyscrapers. Service elevators ensure the stress-free movement of goods and people in shopping centers, office buildings and railway stations. Bed elevators provide for the smooth and vibration-free movement of patients and equipment in hospitals. In industrial buildings, many of the hoists and small good elevators in use are supplied by Schindler, while glass cabin elevators in tall buildings offer both a novel experience and a feeling of safety. It is hard to imagine public transport without elevators, which are often heavily used and must therefore meet demanding requirements in availability and serviceability.
The company’s research and development facility in Switzerland devises complete elevator systems as well as components for all applications. Here, CAE is used to find reliable and energy-efficient solutions which make the most efficient use of materials. The programs SimXpert and MSC Nastran from MSC Software are used for structural calculations using the finite element method (FE). These are used, for example, to simulate the wall fixings of elevators and determine whether deformations and loadings remain within the permissible range. The resulting design and its verification encompass the guiding system and the cabin, counterweight and drive components. In addition to static (strength) calculations, dynamic and vibration analyses are also carried out with the aid of FE methods. The field of nonlinear FE calculations is also of central significance.
AeroVironment’s Global Observer is an unmanned aircraft with the wingspan of a Boeing 767 but less than 10% of the weight designed to provide communications and sensing for flights lasting up to one week at up to 65,000 feet. With a maximum wing loading of only 3.5 pounds per square feet, the wingtip deflects greater than 22 feet at its design limit load.
MSC Nastran was utilized to develop nonlinear stress, structural dynamic and aeroelastic finite element models. The structural dynamics model was correlated to a ground vibration test, both of which had to accommodate the apparent mass of the air, which is atypical. The ultimate test of the nonlinear stress model was correlation with the static wing load test.
When developing the sub-systems of a vehicle, compromises have to be made among several contrasting objectives. On one hand, one wants to set all sub-systems – such as suspensions – so that they allow efficient and safe handling of the vehicle. On the other hand, comfort cannot be sacrificed too much. Being the support of the vehicle and providing forces necessary to control it, pneumatic tires are one of the most important components. However, it is very challenging to model them due to both their complicated composition and the materials used in their manufacturing process. On top of that, the modeling is done by suppliers and an in depth understanding of the interaction with the vehicle must be attained.
The James Webb Space Telescope is a highly sensitive instrument that is positioned using a precise optical metering support structure. This supporting structure is made from composites to reduce thermal expansion effects while reducing weight. The instrument and structure are subjected to temperatures ranging from ambient during launch to cryogenic temperatures while in orbit. Dynamic and static loads are encountered during launch and in operation respectively.